Open Access is a worldwide movement and is supported by numerous organisations and initiatives.
SPARC, Scholarly Publishing and Adademic Resources Coalition, is an association of universities, university libraries and organisations founded in 1997 in the USA. The aim of the association is to create a high-quality and at the same time inexpensive range of publication options for scientific literature as a counterbalance to established commercial publishers - based on a member system.
SPARC Europe represents the same objectives as SPARC, but brings together the interests of European university libraries, library associations and research institutions.
JISC, the Joint Information Systems Committee, supports higher education and provides support for IT applications in training, research and administration.
Deutsche Initiative für Netzwerkinformationen DINI
The development of modern information and communication technology requires a change within the information infrastructures of universities and other research institutions. Dealing with this change is a central theme in the German higher education landscape and requires agreements, cooperation, recommendations and standards. In order to coordinate and support this approach, the German Initiative for Network Information was established.